La Valle Dei Re In Italian [UPD] Download Hd
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Through numerical integration of the primitive equations, we study the summer circulation in the Po Valley, Italy. We investigate separately the mountain slope effect and the sea-breeze effect. The results show that, because of the mountain slope, there is convergence early in the morning and divergence during the day in the lower atmosphere. Further-more, the sea breeze generated by the Adriatic Sea is confined to the eastern side of the Valley. These two phenomena are expected. However, the model suggests that the convergence due to the slope is organized in an area as large as the valley and that, even if the sea breeze is a boundary layer circulation, the perturbation introduced triggers a train of gravity waves as deep as the troposphere. These effects might be very important for the distribution of the summer thunderstorms. Further specific investigations. Experimental and theoretical, are needed.
Si presenta uno studio della circolazione atmosferica nella Valle del Po (Italia) realizzato integrando numericamente le equazioni primitive. Sono stati studiati separatamente l'effetto orografico e quello di brezza marina. I risultati mostrano che a causa della pendenza del suolo c'è convergenza al mattino presto e divergenza durante il giorno nei bassi strati dell'atmosfera. Inoltre la brezza generata dal mare Adriatico è confinata alla regione est della valle. Questi due fenomeni sono ciò che ci si aspetta. Tuttavia il modello suggerisce che la convergenza dovuta alla pendenza delle montagne è organizzata su una superficie grande quanto la valle e che, anche se la brezza è una circolazione dello strato limite, la sua perturbazione è in grado di eccitare onde di gravità profonde quanto la troposfera. Questi effetti potrebbero essere molto importanti per la distribuzione spaziale dei temporali estivi per cui suggeriano ulteriori ricerche sperimentali e teoriche.
A gastronomic and medical ethnobotanical study was conducted among the Occitan communities living in Blins/Bellino and Chianale, in the upper Val Varaita, in the Piedmontese Alps, North-Western Italy, and the traditional uses of 88 botanical taxa were recorded. Comparisons with and analysis of other ethnobotanical studies previously carried out in other Piemontese and surrounding areas, show that approximately one fourth of the botanical taxa quoted in this survey are also known in other surrounding Occitan valleys. It is also evident that traditional knowledge in the Varaita valley has been heavily eroded. This study also examined the local legal framework for the gathering of botanical taxa, and the potential utilization of the most quoted medicinal and food wild herbs in the local market, and suggests that the continuing widespread local collection from the wild of the aerial parts of Alpine wormwood for preparing liqueurs (Artemisia genipi, A. glacialis, and A. umbelliformis) should be seriously reconsidered in terms of sustainability, given the limited availability of these species, even though their collection is culturally salient in the entire study area.
to compare the collected data with those available in the ethnobotanical literature of other Alpine valleys in Piedmont and surrounding areas (Aosta Valley, and the French and Swiss sides of the Alps), and to point out the eventual occurrence of a specific "Occitan" ethnobotany;
The presence of a single "Occitan" culture/language is one of the most disputed issues in European ethnolinguistics , given the considerable heterogeneity of the vast area covered by all linguistic varieties linked under the "Occitan" umbrella. In Italy, "Occitan" languages are spoken in a dozen of valleys in the Western Alps in the Piedmont region , where the interest of the media has been concentrated in recent years on tracing this disappearing culture , and within a small enclave in Southern Italy (i.e. Guardia Piemontese in the Calabria region).
The focus of this study, the Varaita valley, is located in the Western Alps in the Piedmont region, Cuneo province, in North-Western Italy (figure 1). The valley is crossed by an homonymous alpine torrent, which is 75 km long and springs from the slopes of the mountain, Monviso, in the Cottian Alps near the French border, and enters the Po River near Casalgrasso. From the beginning of the 12th century until 1601, most of the Varaita valley was part of the small but influential marquisate of Saluzzo. The upper Varaita valley, called Chastelada, had a different fate however. For four centuries, from 1343 until 1713, it belonged to an independent federation known as Escartons, which was based in Briançon in France. This federation was a good example of enlightened and progressive self-government . After 1713, the upper valley had a quite complex history due to its location on the border of Italy and France. It was the locus of continuous military incursions in the 18th Century from the French side, and in the 19th and most of the 20th century it saw much intensive smuggling activity.
Regarding vegetation, the upper Varaita valley presents mainly the association Rhododendro-Vaccinietum cembretosum (characterized by Rhododendron ferrugineum, Vaccinium myrtillus and, to a lesser extent, V. vitis-idaea, V. uliginosum, Lonicera coerulea, L. alpigena, L. nigra, Juniperus nana, Rosa pendulina, Daphne mezereum, Clematis alpina, Sedum anacampseros, Luzula sieberi, Festuca flavescens and Homogine alpine), and the subassociation Junipero-Arctostaphyletum cembretosum (characterized by Juniperus nana, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Cotoneaster integerrimus, Avenella flexuosa, Vaccinium myrtillus, Minuartia laricifolia, Festuca flavescens, Galium obliquum and Brachypodium caespitosum). The total rainfall is 854 mm/yr (Casteldelfino, 1296 m a.s.l.); the climate is sub-littoral alpine, with some continental characteristics .
The local economy of the upper valley is based on traditional agro-pastoral activities (cow breeding), but this is carried out in only a minor way. There is some tourism, especially in the summer (alpine walking and trekking). Almost all of the few middle-aged and younger members of the community are employed in the lower part of the valley. Traditional cultivation of local staples (rye, barley, buckwheat) had disappeared by the 1970's and home gardens these days are managed as a secondary activity only.
Location of the Western Alpine sites, where previous ethnobotanical studies have been carried out (numbers correspond to those used in the first column of Table 1; VAR: study area - upper Varaita valley).
All our informants, however, were very keen to underline the difference in taste between the industrial genepì (produced from the aerial parts of A. umbelliformis only - the only Artemisia species of the three that has been and can be cultivated with substantial agronomic results) and the home-made liqueur (which generally always contain A. genipi or sometimes a mix of A. genipi and A. glacialis). According to locals in the upper Varaita valley, the specific occurrence in the recipe of A. genepì (locally defined as the "male genepì") is crucial for achieving a superb tasting alcoholic beverage.
Locals in the upper Varaita valley continue to gather the flowering tops (locally named "ears") of A. genipi during July and August, to dry them, and them macerate them in alcohol for at least a month and a half (the alcoholic macerate is then diluted with sugar and water, and filtered). In the past this species was probably heavily exploited by the locals in Chianale, who used to sell it (generally dried) to local distilleries both on the plain of Piedmont and on the French side (often smuggled across secondary pathways over the Alps that were passable with donkeys only). Informants in Chianale recalled how this activity provided the inhabitants with their most important income from a few decades after World War II. There is probably still some illegal gathering of this species that provides additional cash to the people of the mountain. A few informants told us that the income that can be derived from gathering genepì (A. genipi and - to lesser extent - A. glacialis) can reach 15-20 thousand Euros every summer for one single household.
Traditional food and medical uses of 88 local plants were recorded in the upper part of the Varaita valley. Analytical comparisons with other ethnobotanical studies previously carried out in other Piemontese and surrounding areas have shown that: a) traditional knowledge has been heavily eroded in the Varaita valley, and b) approximately one fourth of the quoted botanical taxa were also recorded in earlier surveys conducted in other Occitan valleys in the Italian Alps. Furthermore, the continued widespread local collection from the wild of the aerial parts of Alpine wormwood for the preparation of liqueurs should be seriously reconsidered in terms of sustainability, given the limited availability of these species even though this collection is culturally salient in the entire study areas, On the other hand interesting potentialities for the local market could be tested for other widely available wild species, such as Achillea herba-rotta, Arnica montana, Carum carvi, Chenopodium bonus-henricus, Tanacetum vulgare, Taraxacum officinale, and Tragopogon pratensis.
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