Anti Deep Freeze 6.2
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Chilled water packs can be made by almost filling the ice-pack containers or ordinary plastic water bottles with water and placing them in the main compartment of the refrigerator for about 24 hours. Using chilled water packs may be more efficient than using conditioned ice-packs, because it takes more electricity, gas or kerosene, and more time, to freeze ice-packs and then condition them. Also, there is a risk that if frozen ice-packs are not conditioned properly, they may expose freeze-sensitive vaccines to damage from freezing during transport in vaccine carriers or cold boxes.
A freeze indicator is a small plastic disc that turns red when it is exposed to a temperature of -2C or lower for a minimum of an hour, and is colourless when it has been exposed to a temperature of +2C or higher for an hour. The freeze indicators are used when transporting vaccines to prevent them being damaged by freezing. After they have been used they should be discarded in the trash.
A vaccine vial monitor is a label that changes colour when the vaccine vial or ampoule has been exposed to temperatures above 8C over a period of time. Before opening a vaccine container, the status of the VVM must be checked to see whether the vaccine has been damaged by heat. Manufacturers attach VVMs to vials and ampoules of most vaccines. The VVM is printed on the label or cap, or the neck of ampoules of freeze-dried vaccines (Figure 6.7). It looks like a square inside a circle.
Freeze indicators are a type of monitoring equipment that provides information about the temperature a vaccine is exposed to during transportation and storage. Freeze indicators help to ensure a secure cold chain at every point in the cold chain, and reduce the potential for vaccine damage due to long exposure to freezing temperatures.
Temperature thermometers are used to measure the temperature inside a Nalgene (Figure 6.10), or in a vaccine carrier. Temperature thermometers are the most accurate temperature measuring devices. They consist of a main housing with a digital readout, and a probe that fits into the chamber of a vaccine carrier or Nalgene. A temperature thermometer with a temperature probe should be at least 2 inches long, and the probe may be extended past the tip of the thermometer if required. The length of the probe will depend on the length of the container that it is measuring. 827ec27edc